By Kristen PlankUniversity of Georgia Volume XXXIIINumber 1Page 5 2 tablespoons olive oil1 large onion, thinly sliced2 cloves garlic, minced1 small eggplant, cut into cubes2 green bell peppers, cut into cubes or thin strips4 large tomatoes, coarsely chopped (peel if desired)3 to 4 small zucchini, cut into thin slices1 teaspoon dried leaf basil1/2 teaspoon dried leaf oregano1/4 teaspoon dried leaf thymeIn a 4-quart Dutch oven or skillet, heat olive oil over medium heat. Add garlic and onions and cook, stirring often, until softened (about 5 minutes). Add eggplant and peppers; stir to combine. Cover and simmer for 10 minutes, stirring frequently to keep vegetables from sticking. Add tomatoes, zucchini and herbs; mix well. Cover and simmer over low heat for about 15 minutes or until eggplant is tender. Serves four. Many people grow gardens for the sole purpose of planting and watching their flowers grow. There’s another reason for getting your gloves dirty: growing your own dinner. Elizabeth Andress, a University of Georgia Cooperative Extension food safety specialist in UGA’s College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, gives a dinner idea that offer freshness and simplicity for the table. Andress suggests a French vegetarian dish called ratatouille. “I love this recipe because it allows you to puts fresh vegetables on your plate with a minimum of cooking time,” she says, “and it’s like sitting down to a job well done.”Ratatouille (pronounced ra-ta-twee or ra-ta-too-ee) can be used as a nutritious side dish or a hearty leftover lunch. It has no added sodium or sugar and a minimal amount of fat.Ratatouille
Hay that is stored outside is subject to wetting and drying cycles that lead to the degradation and leaching of nutrients from the bales. Over time, this causes the fiber (indigestible) component of the forage to represent a larger proportion of the bales dry weight. The loss of nutrients (Total Digestible Nutrients, or TDN) can often be as much as 15 to 20 percent in weathered bales. In between our recent rainstorms, most farmers have been able to get their hay cut, dried, baled and stored. For those who produce hay for on-farm use, hay production can be considered a necessary evil. The result is a fibrous, weathered layer that is very low in quality and unpalatable to livestock. Livestock can often be seen eating the middle out of these round bales leaving a “doughnut”-shaped bale. It is most certainly one of the most costly expenses on beef cattle operations, but in seasons where forages may be scarce, such as winter and summer, hay can be a precious commodity. There are many important factors in hay production that impact the cost, such as fertilizer, weed management, equipment, and time. Hay storage is another cost that must be considered.Regardless of how you store your hay, there will be a cost associated with it. You may not think so if you don’t have hay under an expensive storage barn, but even if your hay is sitting outside on the ground, that hay is costing you more and more every day due to loss of both nutritional value and dry matter. When bales are stored outside and uncovered, weathering may affect depths up to 12 inches. The depth will vary based on factors such as bales tightness (i.e. density), storage on unprotected ground, storage under trees and more. It is a general expectation, however, for a weathered layer of 4 to 6 inches for bales stored outside on the ground. This is important because the outer portions of bales make up for a disproportionate amount of the bale’s volume. Losses of only a few inches represent a substantial loss in terms of total bale volume. And, what you can feed your animal. In Georgia’s humid conditions, storage of hay for several months results in typical losses of 20 to 60 percent with twine and net-wrapped hay outside on shaded ground (compared to only 2 to 10 percent under a barn). Once you determine your hay’s value, you can see how much this is really costing you (and your animals) in the long run.To help mitigate losses on hay stored outdoors, run rows of hay bales on an upland site away from shade from trees. This speeds up the drying process. Place the bales with a north-south orientation and southern exposure. Set bales in rows so that the flat sides are touching — not the round sides. This keeps rain from ponding on top of bales. Also, keep rows at least three feet apart to allow for sunlight and good air circulation. Keeping bales off the ground, either by using pallets, crossties, or rocks, is critical in preventing substantial losses. For example, a weathered depth of only four inches on a 5-foot bale (seven percent in terms of cylinder volume) actually equals a 25 percent loss in terms of forage volume. Other studies have shown that losses of 14 inches on bales equates to losses of 74 percent, nearly three-fourths of a bale could be lost simply because it isn’t stored properly.Hay quality is a key component of animal performance, and proper hay storage is a key component of hay quality. Hay loss can be expected, even under a barn, so mitigation and risk management is the key to maintaining as much of your investment as possible. Building a hay barn can be expensive, but if you’re storing your hay on the ground in the elements, you are most assuredly paying for the cost of a barn and then some whether you want to or not.
Nothing ruins a good cookout or run through the sprinklers like a mound of fire ants. With warmer weather around the corner, early spring is the time to tackle fire ants problems before they spoil summer fun. A quick Internet search will yield a slew of home remedies — from applications of grits to vinegar solutions — that are purported to get rid of fire ants. Dan Suiter, a University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences entomologist, researches fire ants and works with homeowners through UGA Extension. He hates to be the bearer of bad news, but says there’s no proof that any of these remedies work. The most effective and most ecologically sound way to get rid of fire ants is to use a bait product containing the active ingredients hydramethylnon (for example, Amdro), methoprene or spinosad. “It’s like a smart bomb,” Suiter said. “You’re putting out a very small concentration of material, and the only thing that it will affect is the fire ants.” The trick is using it correctly, he said. Buying baitHomeowners typically have two options available to them in the home improvement store — fire ant baits and broadcast ant poisons. Amdro, for instance, consists of a small granule of ground corncob saturated in soybean oil that contains the active ingredients hydramethylnon and/or methoprene. Hydramethylnon is an acute toxin designed to kill fire ants when they eat the bait. The broadcast poison is made of clay particles coated with a chemical like bifenthrin, which kills fire ants when they come in contact with the residue left behind. Bifenthrin is not selective. It kills any insect, both beneficial and harmful. Fire ant baits often come in smaller bags and are labeled as bait. Suiter suggests buying the smallest bag or no more than you will need this summer. Due to the soybean oil coating, the bait can go rancid after one season — making the bait unpalatable to the ants.Application is keyFollow the directions on the fire ant bait package exactly. Suiter recommends applying bait in a 2 or 3 foot-diameter circle around the mound — not on top of the mound. The ants will forage out, retrieve the bait and take it back to their nest. Suiter warns not to apply bait to the top of the fire ant mound. Since fire ants do not typically forage on top of their mound, they may not find it to eat it. It’s best to apply the bait on a warm, sunny afternoon, after all the morning dew has dried, he said. Baits should never be applied to wet soil or watered into grass. This will ruin the smell and taste of the bait. Never water in bait after it’s been spread. “Ants are very finicky about what they can smell,” Suiter said. “Cigarette smoke or gas smells can contaminate bait and keep ants from taking the bait. They can also tell if it’s gone rancid, so use it very quickly and seal the bag really well if you don’t use it all. If you have a bag from last year, there’s a good chance it has gone rancid, and the ants won’t touch it.” Bait stored for more than a year or kept near gasoline or fertilizer may not be as effective. Cigarette smokers or anyone who has handled gasoline or fertilizers should wear gloves when applying bait because even subtle changes in the bait’s odor can deter ants. When using a handheld broadcast spreader to apply the bait, make sure it has not been used for any other lawn chemicals. If its new, rinse it with water before spreading the bait to cut down on the smell of new plastic. Keep those ants hungryAvoid disturbing the ant beds before treating them with bait. This distracts them from their primary goal of foraging for food. “Don’t kick the mound, because if you do, the colony will release an alarm hormone,” Suiter said. “They’ll all be looking to defend the mound against the threat; they will not be out looking for food.” What happens next?After bait has been applied, nearby ants will forage out to collect it, and it should be gone within hours, Suiter said. Over the next week to 10 days, the ants will suck the poison-laden soybean oil off the corn granules and begin to die. If a mound is still active 10 days after application, a second application of bait may be necessary. For more information about problem ants, call your local UGA Extension agent at 1-800-AskUGA1 or visit caes.uga.edu/publications.
The state was split into precipitation “haves” and “have nots” last month as western Georgia received copious rainfall and the eastern half the state remained dry. The dry conditions for most of the state this month aided farmers in finishing their harvesting of peanuts, cotton and other crops. However, dryland peanuts and cotton are not grading well due to the drought the past few weeks. Cotton was also hurt by the heavy rains that fell on Oct. 14 and 15 as the bolls were opening. Dry conditions in eastern Georgia delayed planting of small grains and winter forage. Frost ended the growing season in a few areas of the state. Temperatures across the state were generally above normal, and many record highs were broken or tied. Above-average monthly temperatures were found in Atlanta, where the monthly average temperature was 66.2 degrees Fahrenheit, 2.9 degrees above normal; in Athens, 64.2 F, 1.2 degrees above normal; Columbus, 67.5 F, one degree above normal; Macon, 65.3 F, 0.4 degrees above normal; Savannah, 70 F, 2.1 degrees above normal; and Augusta, 65.3 F, 0.9 degrees above normal. Below-average monthly temperatures occurred in Brunswick, 70 F, or 0.5 degrees below normal; Alma, 67.9 F, 0.5 degrees below normal; Albany, 67.9 F, 0.2 degrees below normal; and Valdosta 68.2 F, 0.5 degrees below normal. Record high temperatures were recorded at eight stations across the state and high temperatures tied existing records at 11 sites. Most notable among them was the 90-degree record set in Savannah on Oct. 27, which broke the old record of 89 F set in 1940 and set a new record for the latest 90-degree day in the city’s long history, eclipsing the old record-setting date of Oct. 21, 1943. Climate records in Savannah date back to 1871. Meanwhile, Athens set a record low temperature with a 38-degree night on Oct. 5, beating the old record of 39 F set in 1974. Macon tied a record low temperature of 37 F on the same date. Athens also set a record low daytime temperature on Oct. 4, with the high reaching only 66 F, beating the old record of 71 F set in 1941. Macon also set a new record low daytime temperature of 69 F on the same date, undercutting the 1911 record of 73 F. The highest monthly total precipitation recorded by the National Weather Service was 4.26 inches in Columbus, 1.68 inches above normal, and the lowest was in Augusta—0.61 inches, 2.66 inches below normal. Atlanta received 3.54 inches of precipitation, 0.13 inches above normal; Athens received 3.41 inches, 0.14 inches below normal; Macon, 1.57 inches, 1.22 below normal; Albany, 3.56 inches, 0.97 inches above normal; Brunswick, 2.83 inches, 1.63 inches below normal; Alma, 1.72 inches, 1.31 inches below normal; and Valdosta, 1.36 inches, 1.84 inches below normal. Most of the rain that fell at the wetter stations was reported on a single day, Oct. 14. On that day, a developing low-pressure center in Oklahoma brought a stationary front to western Georgia, dumping copious rain on the area. Atlanta, Athens and Columbus all set new record high precipitation amounts for that date. Atlanta received 2.54 inches, beating the old record of 1.92 inches set in 1959. Athens received 2.78 inches; the old record was 1.30 inches, also in 1959. Columbus saw a whopping 3.91 inches; the old record of 1.49 inches was set in 2009. The highest single-day rainfall, recorded by a Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow Network volunteer, was 4.57 inches observed near Rabun Gap in Rabun County on Oct. 15. An observer in Meriwether County’s Greenville recorded the second highest amount of 3.97 inches. A Jackson County observer in Braselton reported 3.94 inches on Oct. 15. The highest monthly total rainfall was 10.19 inches, observed by an observer 3.5 miles northeast of Dillard in Rabun County and 9.11 inches by the Rabun Gap observer mentioned previously. Georgians saw severe weather on six days in October. Wind damage occurred on Oct. 3, 10, 13 and 14, with hail damage on Oct. 6 and 9. The most notable severe weather occurred on Oct. 13, when six small tornadoes were observed in Atlanta and central Georgia. Five of the six tornadoes were seen in the Atlanta metro area early in the morning. Of these, the greatest damage came in an EF-1 tornado in Alpharetta. You can read about the tornadoes at www.srh.noaa.gov/ffc/?n=2004101_northga_tors. The outlook for November shows that conditions are expected to continue to be relatively quiet. The tropical storm season is nearly over and very little additional activity is expected this year. Predictions of temperature and precipitation show equal chances of above, near and below normal conditions. The three-month prediction for November through January shows no favored temperature patterns, but does show an increased chance of above normal rainfall, especially in south Georgia. This is linked to the expected development of a weak El Niño in the next couple of months, which should affect the Southeast through winter.
Callery pear trees, Pyrus calleryana, are one of the first trees to bloom in early March throughout north Georgia. In full flower, these trees look like a white cloud and are actually quite beautiful. These showy flowers only last a couple of weeks before the trees begin to leaf out and become inconspicuous until next spring. Callery pears are native to Korea and China, and one of the more popular cultivars seen in landscapes throughout Georgia is the Bradford pear. The Bradford produces inedible, sterile fruits because it does not self-pollinate. They have been widely planted throughout the United States since the early 1900s as an ornamental. Unfortunately, Bradford Callery pears are generally considered short-lived trees. As a group, these flowering pear trees tend to have a very weak, vertical branching structure that is notorious for splitting and breaking. Most trees live 10 to 15 years, 20 with luck, before beginning to self-destruct with any wind loading or storm. A Bradford pear tree next to the Extension office in Bartow County split in half as a result of a storm last fall. Genetically, pear trees are programmed to grow this way and corrective pruning only appears to delay the inevitable breakage of tree limbs. Many home landscapers are often disappointed by the problems plagued by these trees. These trees were overused in the landscaping industry 20 to 30 years ago. The public is, hopefully, starting to realize there are stronger, longer-lived trees that are better choices for more permanent landscapes. However, new cultivars of Pyrus calleryana were bred to reduce the tree’s tendency to split in snow or high winds. The Bradford pear cultivar, other Pyrus calleryana cultivars and Pyrus betulaefolia, or Asian pear, can hybridize and produce fertile fruit with viable seeds. Birds spread the seeds. In addition, fertile pear varieties are commonly used as rootstock for grafting ornamental cultivars. If lawn mowers or weed eaters damage the grafted crown, the fertile rootstock can produce suckers that can grow, dominate and produce fertile fruit. Trees that are cut and removed due to storm damage can sometimes regrow from the stump. The resulting tree from the rootstock can also produce fertile fruit. These and other factors may have contributed to the trees seeding out into natural areas and becoming an invasive problem. These wild-growing, invasive pear trees are very common throughout the South and often grow collectively in open fields and abandoned farm sites. These wild types can begin fruiting and producing seeds at 3 years old and are quickly becoming as invasive as Chinese privet and kudzu.Wild types have huge thorns along the branches that could easily puncture the tire of a car or tractor. Most ornamental cultivars do not produce these thorns. Once wild pear trees take over a field, they can be very difficult to remove without the use of herbicides or heavy equipment to pull out the stumps and roots. If pear trees revert back to the thorny, wild types, cut them down and paint the stumps with an herbicide containing glyphosate or triclopyr to prevent re-sprouting. For more information about controlling invasive plants, see the University of Georgia Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health website at www.invasive.org.
Apart from its resistance to herbicides, the naturalization of Johnsongrass across much of the U.S. has also allowed the plant to develop attributes — such as cold and drought tolerance, resistance to pathogens and the ability to flourish in low-fertility soils — that make it particularly difficult to control. “The close relationship between sorghum and Johnsongrass poses both a challenge and an opportunity,” said Paterson, who is housed in the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences and the Franklin College of Arts and Sciences. “The two species are so closely related that no herbicides distinguish between them, making control of Johnsongrass in or near sorghum fields especially difficult. “Regardless, the lessons we learn from Johnsongrass may lead to strategies to improve sorghum and other major crops.” A team of researchers led by faculty at the University of Georgia have received a $5 million grant from the U.S. Department of Agriculture to find new ways of combating Johnsongrass, one of the most widespread and troublesome agricultural weeds in the world. But the researchers also hope that learning more about the fundamental structures that give Johnsongrass its unusual resilience will pave the way for new genetic tools to improve useful plants, such as sorghum, a close relative of Johnsongrass that is grown widely for food, animal fodder and as a source of biofuel. Native to the Mediterranean region, Johnsongrass has spread across every continent except Antarctica. It was introduced to the U.S. in the 1800s as a forage crop, but it quickly spread into surrounding farmland and natural environments, where it continues to cause millions of dollars in lost agricultural revenue each year, according to the USDA. This information may lead to new management strategies that target and curb its growth, providing farmers with a more robust toolkit to combat the invasive plant. Over the course of their five-year project, the researchers will work to develop a better understanding of the weed’s capabilities and the underlying genes that make Johnsongrass so resilient. “Weeds like Johnsongrass are a major challenge for agricultural producers around the world,” said Andrew Paterson, Regents Professor, director of UGA’s Plant Genome Mapping Laboratory and principal investigator for the project. “To make matters worse, widespread adoption of herbicide-resistant crops has been associated with a dramatic increase in herbicide-resistant weeds. With 21 genetically similar but different types of Johnsongrass known to be resistant to herbicides, it will only become more problematic in the future.” Other researchers working on this project include Jacob Barney, Virginia Tech; Jeff Dahlberg, University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources; C. Michael Smith, Kansas State University; Wesley Everman, North Carolina State University; Marnie Rout, University of Texas, Temple; and Clint Magill and Gary Odvody, Texas A&M University.
Busy lives and busy schedules often mean that families put convenience ahead of nutrition when it comes to eating on the go, but Georgia 4-H’ers have developed new food products that add a nutritional punch to the ready-to-eat food market.Four teams of Georgia 4-H’ers traveled to the University of Georgia’s Athens campus last weekend to showcase their new food product prototypes as part of the Georgia 4-H’s Food Product Development Contest.This year’s product proposals included a shelf-stable yogurt snack, a honey-tinged oatmeal breakfast bar, an antioxidant-packed berry juice drink and a cheese cracker developed for people with dairy allergies.In their third year in the contest, the Cheez Beez team from Walker County walked away with first prize for their dairy-free cheese crackers. They have participated in the contest since 2016. Each year, they refined their crackers and their presentation.They developed their concept for a vegan cheese cracker after learning that one of their fellow Walker County 4-H’ers was diagnosed with a dairy intolerance that prevented her from eating cheese. After talking to the mothers of other children who could not eat dairy foods, they thought a dairy-free alternative to those ubiquitous, fish-shaped cheese crackers might find a foothold on crowded grocery store shelves.The LaFayette, Georgia-based team included LaFayette High School juniors Rylie Chamlee and Jenna Sweatmon and seniors Lauren Pike and Tori Lowrance. Walker County 4-H’s Casey Hobbs coached the team.As part of the contest, the 4-H’ers must develop a recipe for a new food product, research the market for the product, create a marketing plan, and design a food safety and manufacturing plan for the product. They pitch their product to a panel of judges from the UGA College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences (CAES) Department of Food Science and Technology.In addition to recognizing the Walker County team, the judges awarded a second-place plaque to Floyd County 4-H’ers for their Clover Cups, a breakfast bar produced by Mason Daniel, Natalie Daniel, Karmen Holbert and Veeka Malenchuk and coached by Floyd County Cooperative Extension Agent Abbie Salmon.Terrell County 4-H’ers Alyssa Dunbar, Larry Hall, Wanya Hall, DarVarous Jones, Janya Scott and Sebastian Shattles took third place with Burri-licious, an antioxidant-packed berry juice tonic. Terrell County 4-H’s Margaret Halbrook coached the team.An honorable mention went to the Haralson County 4-H team for YAP, a shelf-stable yogurt snack developed by team members Ayshanna Frazier, Rachel Ibbetson, Rebekah Ibbetson and Jozie Mize. Haralson County 4-H’s Jenelle Hanyon coached the team.“Every year these students blow us away with their creativity, dedication and attention to detail,” said Cheryl Varnadoe. “Each one of these products deserves a spot on the shelf at the local grocery store, and we’re proud that Georgia 4-H gives these students the ability to develop their entrepreneurial skills while learning about nutrition and food safety.”For more information about the wide range of programs offered by Georgia 4-H, visit www.georgia4H.org.
As messages about COVID-19 come in from all angles, consumers need clear, direct information on how to keep themselves and their families safe from potential infection. To assist in providing this information, and to address concerns, University of Georgia scientists Laurel L. Dunn and Govind Dev Kumar, assistant professors in the department of food science and technology at the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, have answered some common questions individuals may have.Is COVID-19 likely to be transferred from food, including fresh produce, or water?As of now, there is no evidence to suggest that COVID-19 is transferred by food. Food manufacturers and produce growers, especially for commodities for which skin-to-produce contact occurs during harvest, should continue to follow the same practices they already use to reduce the risk of foodborne pathogens as they will also be effective against COVID-19. This includes sending sick workers home, frequent hand washing and glove use, and wearing clean clothing and appropriate personal protective equipment to work.Which sanitizers can be used against COVID-19?Several sanitizers are effective against the virus. If a product’s label says it is effective against coronaviruses or noroviruses (which are generally more difficult viruses to inactivate), it should be effective against COVID-19. See the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s list of approved disinfectants to be used against COVID-19 at epa.gov/newsreleases/epa-expands-covid-19-disinfectant-list. Always follow the EPA label for instructions concerning contact time, concentration and appropriate surfaces for use.Bleach (sodium hypochlorite, Clorox), 70% isopropyl alcohol, povidone iodine and Lysol are all active against coronavirus on nonporous surfaces.Bleach may be mixed at a rate of 1 tablespoon per gallon of water to sanitize food contact surfaces (contact time of at least one minute), and 3/4 cup to 1 gallon of water to disinfect floors and other surfaces (contact time of 10 minutes). Keep in mind this product will stain some materials.Studies with povidone iodine (4% and 7.5%) in a skin cleanser and surgical scrub inactivated similar members of the coronavirus family (SARS-coV and MERS-coV) within 15 seconds. An optimal exposure time of two minutes was suggested.Literature reviews of studies using similar but less infectious coronaviruses such as the SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) and MERS coV (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus) have indicated that the use of 70% ethanol was effective against the viruses after a fairly short duration of exposure, up to four minutes.Washing clothing and bedding with detergent in hot water (approximately 140 degrees Fahrenheit) is the most effective way to inactivate the virus on these surfaces as sanitizers are not effective on fabrics. Use gloves and extreme caution when handling clothing or bedding used by COVID-positive or suspected positive individuals.Products that are not EPA labeled may not be effective against viruses and may be hazardous to humans and animals. Many individuals are resorting to homemade sanitizers, including products containing essential oils. Essential oils are skin, mucous membrane and eye irritants, and many are toxic to pets. Extreme caution should be used when applying these, either directly on surfaces or via aerosolization, around people or animals as serious reactions do occur.How do I properly sanitize against COVID-19?Sanitizing is a multistep process. First, surfaces with visible soil should be wiped clean, either with a clean, damp cloth, paper towel or wipe. Soap may be applied for surfaces with significant soil, then wiped or rinsed off. Once a surface dries, a sanitizer may be applied and should be allowed to air dry. Sanitizers require five to 10 minutes of contact time to inactivate microorganisms, so immediately wiping the surface will not allow sufficient time for viruses to be destroyed. Wipes, including Clorox Wipes, are useful for cleaning, but as the surface treated does not remain wet for more than few seconds, are not likely very useful as sanitizers. If spraying surfaces with sanitizer, be considerate and warn other individuals in the shared space as to why surfaces may be wet.Can I use hand sanitizer instead of washing my hands?Hand sanitizer is not effective on its own against bacteria and viruses on the skin. When applied to unwashed hands, the sanitizer is absorbed by dirt and dead skin cells and is unable to contact microorganisms on the skin surface. Washing hands for 20 seconds under soap and water is the most effective way to remove bacteria and viruses from hands. If desired, hand sanitizer may be applied after hands are dried to further reduce pathogens on hands. Hand sanitizer may also be used frequently between regular handwashing activities, or when there is no access to adequate handwashing facilities.Am I likely to get COVID-19 from packages that are shipped to my home?A recent study by the National Institutes of Health found that the virus does not appear to remain longer than 24 hours on cardboard, but can survive up to three days on stainless steel or plastic. However, large quantities of the virus were used in these studies, and the quantity of the pathogen present on surfaces did diminish over time. For this reason, it appears that the likelihood of virus transmission from packages is low. However, as transmission of the virus from contaminated objects has been documented, individuals may consider sanitizing all items that are delivered or brought into the home and wash hands after handling boxes or shipments they receive.What is the best way to protect myself from COVID-19?Avoiding people and areas accessible to the general public is the best way to reduce the likelihood of infection. Transmission occurs predominantly via aerosolization, such as when a sick individual coughs and spreads droplets into the air or onto surfaces that will be touched by other individuals. At this point in time, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that immunocompromised or elderly individuals — and probably also people who care for these individuals — should reconsider activities that put them in close contact with groups of people, including air travel, dining out, sporting events and most social gatherings. All people should take precautions to limit close contact with each other, including handshakes and hugs, and should consider reducing the amount of time they spend outside the home. All activities that include large groups of people gathering should be reconsidered as this disease appears to be transmissible before an individual begins to show signs of illness. Frequent hand washing is critical before and after spending time in public, and frequently throughout the day. Hand sanitizer should never replace handwashing, but may be used to increase the effectiveness of handwashing.This situation will continue to change rapidly, so continue to follow CDC, FDA and Georgia Department of Public Health updates.As cases are continuing to increase, individuals with medical concerns or in high-risk demographics should consider having sufficient supplies on hand to last several weeks, should consider identifying an individual who can assist with shopping/errand running in the coming weeks and should begin reducing the amount of time spent outside the home.Individuals not in high-risk demographics should be aware that they can transmit the disease even when they are still feeling healthy, and should take special precautions to protect the health of susceptible individuals, including limiting face-to-face contact, increasing social distancing and increasing handwashing.Sick individuals and individuals who suspect they have been exposed should stay home and avoid contact with other people for 14 days. This virus has a long incubation period and again, illness may be spread before an individual begins to experience symptoms.
John King, president and CEO of Vermont Public Television, the statewidepublic television network, has been appointed to two boards. He waselected treasurer and executive committee member of NETA, the NationalEducational Telecommunications Association. NETA is a professionalassociation based in Columbia, S.C., that serves public televisionstations and educational entities. Its mission is to provide qualityprogramming, educational resources, professional development, managementsupport and national representation for its members.King has also been appointed to the Assembly of Overseers ofDartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center in Hanover, N.H. The overseers act asadvisers to the board of trustees on hospital affairs and customer andcommunity relations.He holds a master’s degree in public administration from HarvardUniversity, a bachelor’s degree from Johnson State College and anassociate’s degree from Champlain College. He and his family live inColchester.
The recipients of the International Association of Culinary Professionals (IACP) Awards of Excellence were announced on Saturday, April 24 during the 26th annual conference of the IACP in Baltimore, Maryland at the Baltimore Convention Center.The award for outstanding Vocational Cooking School was given to The New England Culinary Institute (NECI), located in Montpelier, Vermont, an IACP-member cooking school that provides a superior educational experience for students pursuing a career in the culinary industry. NECI offers an AOS in Culinary Arts, AOS in Food and Beverage Management, AOS in Baking and Pastry, BA in Food and Beverage Management and Certificate Programs in both Baking and Pastry and Basic Cooking.New England Culinary Institute has been training future chefs and food and beverage professionals since 1980. The award was given in recognition of the outstanding education the schools provides, including one of the smallest student to teacher ratios in the industry. In addition, students learn their skills in eleven food service operations, including bakeries, popular priced restaurants, fine dining restaurants cafeteria and catering. Students spend 75% of their time working with chefs to produce meals for paying customers.The NECI educational model is ‘standards based” which means students are not graded on their culinary skills or knowledge, but rather they have to meet or exceed a standard of competency in each and every skill. This ensures that they leave for their internship with a strong culinary competence and understanding.Alton Brown, ’97 graduate of NECI and creator of Good Eats on the Food Network, says, “ With an education from NECI, you have the benefits of both the ‘real world’ education and NECI’s strong reputation in the industry. You are prepared to follow your dreams.”Founded in 1978, the International Association of Culinary Professionals (IACP) has approximately 4,000 members worldwide, representing a “who’s who” in the world of food and include cooking teachers and cooking school owners; caterers, chefs and restaurateurs; food writers and cookbook authors; editors and publishers of the world’s consumer and trade press; food stylists and photographers; vintners; television personalities; recipe developers and many others with a special interest in the culinary arts. This unique, diverse membership sets trends, shapes opinion and influences buying habits of millions of consumers.