Novel nanowire memristor to artificially reproduce functions of biological synapses

first_imgReviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Dec 10 2018Emulating and understanding the human brain is one of the most important challenges for modern technology: on the one hand, the ability to artificially reproduce the processing of brain signals is one of the cornerstones for the development of artificial intelligence, while on the other the understanding of the cognitive processes at the base of the human mind is still far away.And the research published in the prestigious journal Nature Communications by Gianluca Milano and Carlo Ricciardi, PhD student and professor, respectively, of the Applied Science and Technology Department of the Politecnico di Torino, represents a step forward in these directions. In fact, the study entitled “Self-limited single nanowire systems combining all-in-one memristive and neuromorphic functionalities” shows how it is possible to artificially emulate the activity of synapses, i.e. the connections between neurons that regulate the learning processes in our brain, in a single “nanowire” with a diameter thousands of times smaller than that of a hair.Related StoriesNew therapy shows promise in preventing brain damage after traumatic brain injuryPosterior parietal cortex plays crucial role in making decisions, research showsMercy Medical Center adds O-arm imaging system to improve spinal surgery resultsIt is a crystalline nanowire that takes the “memristor”, the electronic device able to artificially reproduce the functions of biological synapses, to a more performing level. Thanks to the use of nanotechnologies, which allow the manipulation of matter at the atomic level, it was for the first time possible to combine into one single device the synaptic functions that were individually emulated through specific devices. For this reason, the nanowire allows an extreme miniaturization of the “memristor”, significantly reducing the complexity and energy consumption of the electronic circuits necessary for the implementation of learning algorithms.Starting from the theorization of the “memristor” in 1971 by Prof. Leon Chua – now visiting professor at the Politecnico di Torino, who was conferred an honorary degree by the University in 2015 – this new technology will not only allow smaller and more performing devices to be created for the implementation of increasingly “intelligent” computers, but is also a significant step forward for the emulation and understanding of the functioning of the brain.”The nanowire memristor – said Carlo Ricciardi – represents a model system for the study of physical and electrochemical phenomena that govern biological synapses at the nanoscale. The work is the result of the collaboration between our research team and the RWTH University of Aachen in Germany, supported by INRiM, the National Institute of Metrological Research, and IIT, the Italian Institute of Technology.” Source: https://www.polito.it/?lang=enlast_img read more

Selfdriving cars cant be perfectly safe – whats good enough 3 questions

Citation: Self-driving cars can’t be perfectly safe – what’s good enough? 3 questions answered (2018, March 27) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-03-self-driving-cars-perfectly-safe-good.html On March 19, an Uber self-driving vehicle being tested in Arizona struck and killed Elaine Herzberg, who was walking her bike across the street. This is the first time a self-driving vehicle has killed a pedestrian,and it raises questions about the ethics of developing and testingemerging technologies. Some answers will need to wait until the full investigation is complete. Even so, Nicholas Evans, a philosophy professor at the University of Massachusetts-Lowell who studies the ethics of autonomous vehicles’ decision-making processes, says some questions can be answered now. 1. Could a human driver have avoided this crash?Probably so. It’s easy to think that most people would have trouble seeing a pedestrian crossing a road at night. But what’s already clear about this particular event is that the road was not as dark as the local police chief initially claimed. The chief also originally said Herzberg suddenly stepped out into traffic in front of the car. However, the disturbing and alarming video footage released by Uber and local authorities shows this isn’t true: Rather, Herzberg had already walked across one lane of the two-lane road, and was in the process of continuing the road-crossing when the Uber hit her. (The safety driver also didn’t notice the pedestrian, but video suggests the driver was looking down, not through the windshield.)A normal human driver, someone actively paying attention to the road, would likely have had little problem avoiding Herzberg: With headlights on while traveling 40 mph on an actually dark road, it’s not difficult to avoid obstacles on a straightaway when they’re 100 or more feet ahead, including people or wildlife trying to get across. This crash was avoidable.One tragic implication of that fact is clear: A self-driving car killed a person. But there is a public significance too. At least this one Uber car drove itself on populated streets while unable to perform the crucial safety task of detecting a pedestrian, and braking or steering so as not to hit the person. This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article. Explore further Is it going to stop? Credit: marat marihal/Shutterstock.com This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. In the wake of Herzberg’s death, the safety and reliability of Uber’s self-driving cars has come into question. It’s also worth examining the ethics: Just as Uber has been criticized for exploiting its drivers for profits, the company may arguably be exploiting the driving, riding and walking public for its own research purposes.2. Even if this crash was avoidable, are self-driving cars still generally safer than human-driven cars?Not yet. The death toll on U.S. roads is indeed alarming: approximately 32,000 deaths per year. The federal estimate is that 1.18 people die per 100 million road miles driven by humans. Uber’s cars only drove 3 million miles, however, before their first fatality. It’s not fair to do statistical analysis from a single point of data, but it’s not a great start: Companies should be aiming to make their robots at least as good as humans, if not yet fulfilling the promise of being significantly better.Even if Uber’s autonomous cars were better drivers, the numbers don’t tell the whole story. Of the 32,000 people who die on U.S. roads each year, 5,000 to 6,000 are pedestrians. When aiming for safety improvements, should the goal be to reduce overall deaths – or to put special emphasis on protecting the most vulnerable victims? It’s certainly hypothetically possible to imagine a self-driving car system that cuts overall road deaths in half – to 16,000 – while doubling the pedestrian death rate – to 12,000. Overall, that might seem far better than human drivers – but not from the perspective of people walking along the nation’s roads!My research group has been working to develop ethical decision frameworks for self-driving cars. One potential approach is called “maximin.” Most fundamentally, that way of thinking suggests people designing autonomous vehicles – both physically and in terms of software that runs them – should identify the worst possible outcomes of any decision, even if rare, and work to minimize their effects. Anyone who has been unfortunate enough to be hit by a car both as a pedestrian and while in a vehicle knows that being on foot is far worse. Under maximin, people should design and test cars, among other things, to prioritize pedestrian safety.Maximin probably isn’t the best possible – and certainly isn’t the only – moral decision theory to use. In some cases, the worst outcome could be avoided if a car never pulls out of its driveway! But maximin provides food for thought about how to integrate self-driving cars into daily life. Even if autonomous cars are always evaluated as safer than humans, what counts as “safer” matters very much.3. How much better should self-driving cars be than humans before the public accepts them?Even if people could agree on the ways in which self-driving cars should be safer than humans, it’s not clear that people should be okay with self-driving cars when they first become only barely better than humans. If anything, that’s when tests on city streets should begin.Consider a new drug developed by a pharmaceutical company. The company can’t market it as soon as it’s proven not to kill people who take it. Rather, the drug has to go through a series of tests proving it is effective at treating the symptom or condition it’s intended to. Increasingly, drug tests seek to prove a medication is significantly better than what’s already on the market. People should expect the same with self-driving cars before companies put the public at risk.The crash in Arizona wasn’t just a tragedy. The failure to see a pedestrian in low light was an avoidable basic error for a self-driving car. Autonomous vehicles should be able to do much more than that before they’re allowed to be driven, even in tests, on the open road. Just like pharmaceutical companies, massive technology companies should be required to thoroughly – and ethically – test their systems before their self-driving cars serve or endanger the public. Toyota suspends self-driving car tests after Uber death Provided by The Conversation read more

Singapore may use drones to deliver medicine for security

first_img European flight safety agency issues drone guidelines Tiny Singapore, with a population of 5.6 million, is ultra-modern, well-ordered and tightly regulated—factors seen to improve the drone scheme’s chance of working Future Flight Consortium, a 13-member group, said it had been chosen by the country’s civil aviation authority and transport ministry to develop the drone programme.Its uses could include transporting blood samples, delivering emergency medical supplies and responding to security incidents across the city-state, it said in a statement.Tiny Singapore, with a population of 5.6 million, is ultra-modern, well-ordered and tightly regulated—factors seen to improve the scheme’s chance of working.The drones would be operated remotely by pilots at an operations centre and be able to travel relatively long distances across the city-state. This is in contrast to their recreational counterparts—whose use is permitted in Singapore—which can travel only short distances and are at all times visible to their operators.The consortium said it will generate flight paths for the drones, and will develop a private communications network as well as take-off and landing sites. “Our goal is to make it possible for any enterprise who needs to fly drones (beyond the visual sight of the pilots) in Singapore to easily do so in a safe and effective manner,” said Future Flight project director Ong Jiin Joo.The consortium gave a two-year timeline for the development of the system and pledged to conduct rigorous safety tests.The Singapore Civil Defence Force—which manages the city-state’s emergency services—and fellow consortium member Garuda Robotics said they were in talks to use drones in the force’s operations, in particular to deliver “critical life-saving supplies”.A hospital operator in the consortium said it plans to use drones to transport blood samples and specimens between its hospitals and central laboratory, while a security firm said it will use the devices to respond to security incidents and fire alarms. Explore further Drones could be used across hi-tech Singapore to deliver life-saving medical supplies to a patient during an emergency or to respond to a security breach under a new system in development, a private consortium said Tuesday.center_img Citation: Singapore may use drones to deliver medicine, for security (2018, July 24) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-07-singapore-drones-medicine.html © 2018 AFP This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

The Worlds Largest Iceberg Is 2 Years Old Today and Already Drifting

first_img Photo Gallery: Antarctica’s Pine Island Glacier Cracks They grow up so fast. The iceberg called A68 — currently the largest iceberg in the world, weighing about 1.1 trillion tons (1 trillion metric tons) — calved off Antarctica’s Larsen C Ice Shelf on July 12, 2017, two years ago today. What has this massive, frozen toddler been up to since it broke free? Mostly just spinning. As you can see in this awesome time-lapse footage taken over the last 18 months by the European Space Agency’s Sentinel-1 satellites, and shared today by glaciologist Adrian Luckman, the hulking glacier has been steadily spinning away from its native ice shelf, drifting north about 155 miles (250 kilometers) from where it began. According to Luckman, that’s some impressive mobility for arguably the largest free-moving object on Earth. [Images of Melt: Earth’s Vanishing Ice]Headbutting Tiny Worms Are Really, Really LoudThis rapid strike produces a loud ‘pop’ comparable to those made by snapping shrimps, one of the most intense biological sounds measured at sea.Your Recommended PlaylistVolume 0%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard Shortcutsplay/pauseincrease volumedecrease volumeseek forwardsseek backwardstoggle captionstoggle fullscreenmute/unmuteseek to %SPACE↑↓→←cfm0-9接下来播放Why Is It ‘Snowing’ Salt in the Dead Sea?01:53 facebook twitter 发邮件 reddit 链接https://www.livescience.com/65929-worlds-largest-iceberg-drifting-toward-death.html?jwsource=cl已复制直播00:0000:3500:35  “At 100 miles (160 km) long by only a couple of hundred meters thick, the aspect ratio of Iceberg A68 is more like a credit card than a typically imagined iceberg,” Luckman, a professor at Swansea University in the UK, wrote on his website. “All the more surprising then, that despite grounding on the sea floor several times, Iceberg A68 remains in pretty much the same shape that it had when it calved away 2 years ago.” Alas, every step forward is a step away from home — and toward certain doom. While iceberg A68 continues to pirouette in a current called the Weddell Gyre (named for Antarctica’s Weddell Sea), it moves ever closer to the pull of the South Atlantic Ocean, where it will be gently swept northward to warmer climes. Many icebergs that find themselves on this path (part of an oceanic conveyor belt known as “iceberg alley,” according to BBC News) end up screeching to a halt near South Georgia Island, a remote British Overseas Territory about 1,000 miles (1,600 km) north of Antarctica. Icebergs of similar size to A68 have drifted for 5 years before making landfall, splitting into ever smaller chunks along the way. Other bergs drift farther north, ultimately melting near South America. While A68’s fate is largely up to the whims of the Atlantic Ocean at this point, scientists will continue monitoring the frigid tot’s progress from space as long as they can. Visually, it may not be as interesting as a square iceberg or coffin iceberg, but A68 still our iceberg — and we’ll be proud of it no matter how it dies. In Photos: Antarctica’s Larsen C Ice Shelf Through Time Iconic Photos of Earth from Space Originally published on Live Science.by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeVikings: Free Online GamePlay this for 1 min and see why everyone is addicted!Vikings: Free Online GameUndoTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionOne Thing All Liars Have in Common, Brace YourselfTruthFinder People Search SubscriptionUndoairdogusa.comThe World’s Best Washable Air Purifierairdogusa.comUndoFinance101What Are The Best States To Retire In?Finance101UndoBirch Gold GroupThis IRS Tax Law is Sweeping the U.S.Birch Gold GroupUndoAnti-Snoring SolutionA Simple Fix for Snoring And Sleep ApneaAnti-Snoring SolutionUndolast_img read more

Child burnt to death in fire triggered by cooking gas cylinder burst

first_img Press Trust of India SambhalJuly 12, 2019UPDATED: July 12, 2019 18:23 IST (Image Credit: ANI)A child was burnt to death and five others suffered injuries when a cooking gas cylinder burst triggering a fire at a house in Sambhal district of Uttar Pradesh on Friday, police said.The incident took place in Barkheda Saunak village in the Behjoi area of the district, Superintendent of Police Yamuna Prasad said.The deceased was identified as Akash (3).The injured were admitted to a hospital, where their condition was stated to be stable, the police said.ALSO READ | Shivpal Yadav-led Pragatisheel Samajwadi Party leader found dead in AmethiALSO WATCH | Chandrayaan-2: India’s second mission to the Moon to be launched on July 15For the latest World Cup news, live scores and fixtures for World Cup 2019, log on to indiatoday.in/sports. Like us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter for World Cup news, scores and updates.Get real-time alerts and all the news on your phone with the all-new India Today app. Download from Post your comment Do You Like This Story? Awesome! Now share the story Too bad. Tell us what you didn’t like in the comments Posted byKritika Kashyap Tags :Follow Uttar PradeshFollow Sambhal districtFollow Cooking gas cylinder explosionFollow superintendent of police Next Child burnt to death in fire triggered by cooking gas cylinder burstA child was burnt to death and five others suffered injuries when a cooking gas cylinder burst in Barkheda Saunak village in UP.advertisementlast_img read more