Volcanic history of Mount Sidley, a major alkaline volcano in Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica

first_imgMount Sidley is a complex, polygenetic stratovolcano composed primarily of phonolitic and trachytic lavas and subordinate pyroclastic lithologies at the southern extremity of the Executive Committee Range, a linear chain of volcanoes in central Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica. Detailed field investigation coupled with 14 high precision 40Ar/39Ar age determinations reveal a 1.5 million year life span between 5.7 and 4.2 Ma in which three major phonolitic central vent edifices (Byrd, Weiss and Sidley volcanoes) and their calderas were developed (5.7–4.8 Ma). This was followed (4.6–4.5 Ma) by the eruption of trachytic magmas from multiple vent localities further south, and then by small volume benmoreite-mugearite lavas and tephras around 4.4–4.3 Ma at the southern end of Mount Sidley. The final phase of activity was the eruption of basanite cones at approximately 4.2 Ma. The southward migration of volcanic activity was accompanied by distinct changes in magma composition and is best explained by the sequential release of magmas stored within an intricate system of conduits and chambers in the crust by tectonically driven (magma assisted?) fracture propagation. The style of volcanic migration at Mount Sidley is emulated on a larger scale by other volcanoes in the Executive Committee Range, in which progressive southward displacement of volcanic activity corresponds with significant petrological variations between major centers.last_img read more

5 Ratatouille

first_imgBy Kristen PlankUniversity of Georgia Volume XXXIIINumber 1Page 5 2 tablespoons olive oil1 large onion, thinly sliced2 cloves garlic, minced1 small eggplant, cut into cubes2 green bell peppers, cut into cubes or thin strips4 large tomatoes, coarsely chopped (peel if desired)3 to 4 small zucchini, cut into thin slices1 teaspoon dried leaf basil1/2 teaspoon dried leaf oregano1/4 teaspoon dried leaf thymeIn a 4-quart Dutch oven or skillet, heat olive oil over medium heat. Add garlic and onions and cook, stirring often, until softened (about 5 minutes). Add eggplant and peppers; stir to combine. Cover and simmer for 10 minutes, stirring frequently to keep vegetables from sticking. Add tomatoes, zucchini and herbs; mix well. Cover and simmer over low heat for about 15 minutes or until eggplant is tender. Serves four.center_img Many people grow gardens for the sole purpose of planting and watching their flowers grow. There’s another reason for getting your gloves dirty: growing your own dinner. Elizabeth Andress, a University of Georgia Cooperative Extension food safety specialist in UGA’s College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, gives a dinner idea that offer freshness and simplicity for the table. Andress suggests a French vegetarian dish called ratatouille. “I love this recipe because it allows you to puts fresh vegetables on your plate with a minimum of cooking time,” she says, “and it’s like sitting down to a job well done.”Ratatouille (pronounced ra-ta-twee or ra-ta-too-ee) can be used as a nutritious side dish or a hearty leftover lunch. It has no added sodium or sugar and a minimal amount of fat.Ratatouillelast_img read more

Premier League clubs vote for return to longer summer transfer window

first_imgPremier League clubs have voted to change the summer transfer window to bring it in line with the rest of Europe.For the past two seasons, the window in England has closed the day before the top-flight campaign began.In a statement, the Premier League said the deadline has been changed to the “traditional point at the end of August/early September”.The 2020 closing date will be 1 September at 1600GMTThe vote was taken at a Premier League shareholders’ meeting in London on Thursday.The transfer window was moved to the start of August in England following complaints from clubs and managers that keeping it open after the start of the season was disruptive.It was hoped major leagues across Europe would also bring their own windows forward.However, that did not happen and a number of clubs found themselves in the uncomfortable position of knowing their players were in demand across the continent but unable to bring in replacements for anyone they wanted to sell.Liverpool manager Jurgen Klopp has previously voiced support for bringing the closure of the summer transfer window back in line with the rest of Europe.“I don’t care when it closes, but it must close at the same time,” he said in September. “They spoke about finishing it before the season starts. Good idea, but only England did it. That makes no sense. It was a good idea but it didn’t work out.” Source: BBClast_img read more