By Cat HolmesUniversity of GeorgiaSpring has sprung and summer’s hot on its heels, but before you head out to walk barefoot in the grass, take some time to check it out for problems. “Turf grass diseases are hard to diagnose but relatively simple to treat,” said Alfredo Martinez, a plant pathologist with the University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences.”Now that grass is greening up, people should go take a walk and look carefully over their lawns,” Martinez said. “Plant diseases are just like human diseases. Prevention is essential, and the earlier you treat them, the better.”Diagnosing turf problemsWhen scouting the lawn, what should you be looking for?”Turf grass diseases usually show up as discolored spots, bare patches and thin grass,” Martinez said. “At this time of the year, there are two main turf diseases in Georgia: brown patch and dollar spot.”The symptoms of brown patch are circles or patches of thin, yellowing grass, Martinez said. The circles may range from several inches to several feet across.”The causal agent of brown patch, a fungus called rhizoctonia, grows outwards,” Martinez said. “The resulting patch looks like a ‘doughnut’ of brown or yellow discolored grass with green in the middle. The green appears because as the fungus spreads outwards, weeds or new grass starts to grow in the middle, creating a doughnut effect.”Small white patches, only a few inches in diameter, are probably dollar spot, Martinez said. Sometimes the spots are close together and may appear to look like larger patches. But if on close inspection, it’s an aggregate of small, whitish, circular patches, it’s dollar spot.Treating turf problemsThe best resource for diagnosing and treating turf disease is a county extension agent, Martinez said.”A county agent can play a major role in helping prevent, diagnose and treat turf grass problems,” Martinez said. “It’s hard for someone who isn’t trained to diagnose turf grass diseases. The county agent may recommend fertilization treatment, adding more light or air movement or fungicides. And if they’re uncertain about the problem, they will contact us.”Preventing turf problemsAn ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure when it comes to turf, Martinez said. One of the easiest ways to prevent turf disease, he said, is to avoid overwatering.”Improper watering habits account for a large number of the cases of turf grass disease,” Martinez said. “People tend to water for short intervals several times a week. Plant diseases love high humidity on foliage, and too-frequent watering actually encourages diseases.”It’s much better to water long enough for the moisture to soak 2 to 3 inches into the soil, he said.Martinez says watering regimes should be based on the type of soil. For example, one good watering each week may be enough for sandy soils, while clay-based soils hold more moisture, and water intervals can be extended.It’s also important to water grass before noon, Martinez said, so the turf has time to dry out thoroughly before nightfall.Proper fertilization procedures and rates are also essential to avoid turf diseases. “Each grass species has particular fertility requirements,” he said.Another key is to plant grass that’s appropriate for the region and your yard. Again, Martinez recommends consulting with a county extension agent.”Different grasses do much better in different areas,” he said. “A county agent can assess an area and recommend turf suited to that particular location and use.”If you’re planting grass this spring, Martinez said, prepare the soil properly. It’s important to remove all rocks, stumps and debris. Take soil samples to your country extension agent to get a good idea of what, if any, amendments your soil might need.Proper grading is another key. Low areas are bad news for turf, because that’s where water collects, and excessive water promotes disease.
By Dialogo February 24, 2011 i would like to know what the price of long range aircraft for total 18 pax or 22pax & what is the latest available aircraft The Brazilian aircraft manufacturer Embraer has inaugurated its first aircraft final assembly plant in the United States, in which it has invested a total of fifty million dollars, the firm confirmed to AFP on 22 February. The new installation at Melbourne International Airport in Melbourne, Florida (in the southeastern United States), inaugurated on 21 February, will be initially dedicated to producing Phenom 100 four-passenger executive jets, a spokesperson for the firm said. The inauguration “of the first U.S. industrial site in Melbourne is a landmark for Embraer, as we fulfill our goal of bringing operations closer to our customers and to our largest market,” affirmed Frederico Fleury Curado, Embraer’s president and CEO, according to a press release. The Melbourne unit, which will have around two hundred employees, is also planned to include a customer center where purchasers can determine the interior design of their executive jets thanks to the use of 3D technology. The first Phenom 100 assembled in the United States should be delivered in the fourth quarter of 2011, the Brazilian firm specified. In 2010, Embraer delivered a total of one hundred Phenom 100 planes, making it the most-delivered executive jet in the world that year, the firm announced. With two hundred planes in the Phenom family (Phenom 100 and Phenom 300) already delivered, the firm has a portfolio of five hundred orders for these planes from forty-four countries, to be manufactured on the model’s two production lines, in Brazil and now in the United States. The U.S. installation is Embraer’s second factory outside Brazil, since it has a center in China where the ERJ 145 model is built. Embraer is the world’s third-largest manufacturer of commercial airplanes, after the giants Boeing (United States) and Airbus (European Union), and delivered 246 planes in 2010, a record. The firm’s models also cater to the defense sector.